As per the UN, soil compaction reduces crop yields by 60%! That means farmers are growing only 40% of their potential because their soil is compacted!
See info-graphic below:
80% of soil compaction is caused by Agriculture mismanagement. The tractor is responsible for compacting the limited and fertile agricultural land around the world.
Tractor is a weapon of mass destruction - that impairs soil functions, impedes root penetration and water & gas exchange. It literally destroys the soil ecology and zillions of living beings in soil which have most crucial life functions to perform.
These are some of the advertisement I found in Poona Agricultural Magazine of 1949. India got independence in 1947 but these British tractor companies were funding the agricultural education in India - to destroy the backbone of sustainable oxen-based ploughing.
The UN states that "Minimum Tillage Agriculture is among the top options to reduce tillage costs, conserve soil and water, increase Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) pools, and reduce net CO2 emissions."
The oxen tread so lightly that their gait does not destroy the soil ecology - instead opens up the channels of air and water exchange essential for sowing and healthy plants. They are the best for 'minimum tillage agriculture' of the future.
This is a village festival in Rajasthan which shows how the feet of the bullocks and cows do not hurt or harm anyone - from humans to little organisms in the soil - as they tread over them!
Hence the native oxen are the best for minimum tillage and conserving ecology of soil that helps sustain life forms on earth.